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Presente Perfecto

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El 'present perfect' es usado para expresar lo que ha sucedido recientemente y que tiene un efecto en el momento presente. Nosotros usualmente usamos 'just', 'yet' y 'already' para expresar la relación con el momento presente.

Ejemplos:

Have you seen Mary yet?
They've already had dinner.
She's just been to the dentist's.

El 'present perfect' también es usado para expresar algo que ha sucedido hasta el momento presente.

Ejemplos:

Have you worked here for a long time?
Peter's lived here since 1987.
She hasn't had much fun this week.

Forma Positiva

Sujeto + have + participio pasado + Objeto(s)

Ejemplos:

Peter's lived here since 1987.
We've been very busy today.

Forma Negativa

Sujeto + have + not + participio pasado + Objeto(s)

Ejemplos:

I haven't been to class very often this month.
She hasn't had much fun this week.

Forma Interrogativa

(Wh?) + have + Sujeto + participio pasado?

Ejemplos:

Have you worked here for a long time?
Where have you been?

Present Perfect for Unspecified Past

Cuando hablamos sobre una experiencia que ha sucedido en un punto NO ESPECÍFICO del tiempo antes del momento presente use el 'present perfect'.

Ejemplos:

I've been to New York three times.
They've lived in many places.
She's studied in London.

NOTA: En este uso del 'present perfect', nosotros estamos hablando sobre cosas que han sucedido hasta el momento presente. Siempre que hable sobre algo que haya sucedido hasta el momento sin dar un punto preciso en el tiempo, use el 'present perfect'.

'For', 'Since' and 'How long'

Use 'for' para indicar una duración o periodo de tiempo.

Ejemplos:

He has lived here for seven years.
We have been here for six weeks.
Shirley has played tennis for a long time.

Use 'since' para indicar un punto específico en el tiempo.

Ejemplos:

I've worked here since 2004.
She's gone to dancing lessons since April.
They've been unhappy since they left college.

Use 'How long' en la forma interrogativa para preguntar sobre la duración.

Ejemplos:

How long have you played the piano?
How long has he worked here?
How long has she been with you?

Pruebe su conocimiento con esta breve prueba.

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