What is an Indirect Object?
Indirect objects are persons or things who receive the benefits of an action. In other words, when somebody does something for someone or something the person or thing it is done for is the indirect object. For example:
Tom gave me the book.
Melissa bought Tim some chocolate.
In the first sentence the direct object 'book' was given to me, the indirect object. In other words, I received the benefit. In the second sentence Tim received the direct object 'chocolate'. Notice that the indirect object is placed before direct object.
Indirect Objects Answer Questions
Indirect objects answer the questions 'to whom', 'to what', 'for whom' or 'for what'. For example:
Susan offered Fred some good advice. - To whom was advice (direct object in sentence) offered? -> Fred (indirect object)
The teacher teaches the students science in the morning. For whom is science (direct object in sentence) taught? -> the students (indirect object)
Nouns as Indirect Objects
Indirect objects can be nouns (things, objects, people, etc.). Generally, however, indirect objects are usually people or groups of people. This is because indirect objects (people) receive the benefit of some action. For example:
I read Peter the report. - 'Peter' is the indirect object and 'the report' (what I read) is the direct object.
Mary showed Alice her house. - 'Alice' is the indirect object and 'the house' (what she showed) is the direct object.
Pronouns as Indirect Objects
Pronouns can be used as indirect objects. It's important to note that pronouns used as indirect objects must take the object pronoun form. Object pronouns include me, you, him, her, it, us, you, and them. For example:
Greg told me the story. - 'Me' is the indirect object and 'the story' (what Greg told) is the direct object.
The boss lent them the start-up investment. - 'Them' is the indirect object and 'the start-up investment' (what the boss lent) is the direct object.
Noun Phrases as Indirect Objects
Noun phrases (a descriptive phrase ending in a noun: a beautiful vase, an interested, wise, old professor) can also be used as indirect objects. For example:
The composer wrote the dedicated, poor singers a song to perform. - 'the dedicated, poor singers' are the indirect object (noun phrase form), while 'a song' (what the composer wrote) is the direct object.
Relative Clauses as Indirect Objects
Relative clauses which define an object can also function as indirect objects. For example:
Peter promised the man, who had been waiting for an hour, the next tour of the building. - In this case, 'the man' is defined by the relative clause 'who had been waiting for an hour' both of these make up the indirect object. 'The next tour of the building' (what Peter promises) is the direct object.
If you would like to learn more about direct objects, visit the direct objects explanation page.